Meeting Point: Latest From Lovaas

June 07

Meeting Point: Latest From Lovaas

Data-Based Research in Applied Behavior Analysis for Older Children with Autism

While much attention has been paid to the young children who made phenomenal progress in early, intensive behavioral treatment, such research does not exhaust the benefits of behavioral treatment. Therapy utilizing applied behavior analysis is primarily meant to improve the quality of life of an individual with autism. This can be accomplished in early childhood, adolescence, and even later in life.

The National Research Council's 2001 report Educating Children with Autism discusses interventions for adolescents and adults. The report points out,

"A number of interventions have demonstrated that adolescents or adults with autism can be taught purchasing skills and other community living skills, such as ordering food in a restaurant (Haring et al., 1987). However, most applications of instruction in community living skills have been developed for children and adults with mental retardation. Daily living skills targeted have ranged from appropriate mealtime behaviors (O'Brien et al., 1972; Wilson et al., 1984), to eating in public places (van den Pol et al., 1981). Proactive approaches to promoting community access include instruction in clothing selection skills (Nutter and Reid, 1978), pedestrian safety (Page et al., 1976), nondisruptive bus riding (Neef et al., 1978), vending machine use (Sprague and Horner, 1984), and coin summation (Lowe and Cuvo, 1976; Miller et al., 1977; Trace et al., 1977). Additionally, procedures for teaching leisure skills have targeted independent walking (Gruber et al., 1979) and soccer (Luyben et al., 1986)."
http://darwin.nap.edu/books/0309072697/html/104.html

The vast majority of these interventions are behavioral interventions. Most citations are from the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. In fact, there have been over 70 research articles documenting the use of applied behavior analysis principles to teach new skills to people with autism over the age of five. Most of these studies were not comprehensive programs, but rather focused on one issue (e.g., one skill to develop or one behavior to change). Research shows that applied behavior analysis procedures have also been used effectively in many intervention programs to address the needs of a variety of populations and diagnoses (e.g., teaching children to read, helping adults quit smoking, increasing productivity of a business, etc.).

Below is a list of references for older children (classified as above the age of 5) compiled by Dr. Eric Larsson of the Lovaas Institute, Midwest. The list is not exhaustive:

  • Blew, P.A., Schwartz, I.S., & Luce, S.C. (1985). Teaching functional community skills to autistic children using nonhandicapped peer tutors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 18, 337-342.
  • Charlop, M.H. (1983). The effects of echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 16, 111-127.
  • Charlop, M.H., & Milstein, J.P. (1989). Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 22, 275-286.
  • Charlop, M.H., & Trasowech, J.E., (1991). Increasing autistic children's daily spontaneous speech. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 24, 747-762.
  • Charlop, M.H., & Walsh, M.E. (1986). Increasing autistic children's spontaneous verbalizations of affection: An assessment of time delay and peer modelling procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, 307-314.
  • Charlop, M.H., Kurtz, P.F., & Casey, F.G. (1990). Using aberrant behaviors as reinforcers for autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 23, 163-182.
  • Charlop, M.H., Kurtz, P.F., & Milstein, J.P. (1992). Too much reinforcement, too little behavior: Assessing task interspersal procedures in conjunction with different reinforcement schedules with autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 795-808.
  • Charlop, M.H., Schreibman, L., & Thibodeau, M.G. (1985). Increasing spontaneous verbal responding in autistic children using a time delay procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 155-166.
  • Craighead, W.E., O'Leary, K.D., & Allen, J.S. (1973). Teaching and generalization of instruction following in an "autistic" child. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 4, 171-176.
  • Davison, G.C. (1964). A social learning therapy programme with an autistic child. Behavior Research and Therapy, 2, 149-159.
  • Dunlap, G. (1984). The influence of task variation and maintenance tasks on the learning and affect of autistic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 37, 41-46.
  • Dunlap, G., & Koegel, R.L. (1980). Motivating autistic children through stimulus variation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 619-627.
  • Dunlap, G., Dyer, K., & Koegel, R.L. (1983). Autistic self-stimulation and intertrial interval duration. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88, 194-202.
  • Dunlap, G., & Johnson, Jean, (1985). Increasing the independent responding of autistic children with unpredictable supervision. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 18, 227-236.
  • Dunlap, G., Koegel, R.L., Johnson, Jean, & O'Neill, R.E. (1986). Maintaining performance of autistic clients in community settings with delayed contingencies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 20, 185-192.
  • Durand, V. M., & Crimmins, D. B. (1987). Assessment and treatment of psychotic speech in an autistic child. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 17-28.
  • Dyer, K. I. (1987). The competition of autistic stereotyped behavior with usual and specially assessed reinforcers. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 8, 607-626.
  • Dyer, K., Christian, W.P., & Luce, S.C. (1982). The role of response delay in improving the discrimination performance of autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 231-240.
  • Egel, A. L., Richman, G. S., & Koegel, R. L. (1981). Normal peer models and autistic children's learning. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14, 3-12.
  • Fineman, K.R. (1968). Visual-color reinforcement in establishment of speech by an autistic child. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 26, 761-762.
  • Foxx, R.M. & Azrin, N.H. (1973). The elimination of autistic self-stimulatory behavior by overcorrection. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 6, 1-14.
  • Gaylord-Ross, R.J., Haring, T.G., Breen, C., & Pitts-Conway, V. (1984). The training and generalization of social interaction skills with autistic youth. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 229-248.
  • Gena, A., Krantz, P., McClannahan, L.E., & Poulson, C.L. (1996). Training and generalization of affective behavior displayed by youth with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29, 291-304.
  • Handleman, J.S. (1979). Generalization by autistic-type children of verbal responses across settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 273-282.
  • Hewitt, F.M. (1965). Teaching speech to an autistic child through operant conditioning. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 35, 927-936.
  • Ingenmey, R., & Van Houten, R. (1991). Using time delay to promote spontaneous speech in an autistic child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 591-596.
  • Johnson, S. C., Larsson, E. V., & Luce, S. C. (1989, November). Follow-up measures of program effectiveness: Ten years of behavioral programming at the May Institute. In E. V. Larsson (Chair), The sustained evaluation and development of a comprehensive program of services for children with autism. Symposium conducted at the twenty third annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Washington, DC.
  • Kamps, D.M., Barbetta, P.M., Leonard, B.R., & Delquadri, J., (1994). Classwide peer tutoring: An integration strategy to improve reading skills and promote peer interactions among students with autism and general education peers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 49-62.
  • Kamps, D.M., Leonard, B.R., Vernon, S., Dugan, E.P., Delquadri, J.C., Gershon, B., Wade, L., & Folk, L., (1992). Teaching social skills to students with autism to increase peer interactions in an integrated first-grade classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 25, 281-288.
  • Koegel, R. L., & Covert, A. (1972). The relationship of self-stimulation to learning in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5, 381-388.
  • Koegel, R. L., & Schreibman, L. (1977). Teaching autistic children to respond to simultaneous multiple cues. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 24, 299-311.
  • Koegel, R. L., Firestone, P. B., Kramme, K. W., & Dunlap, G. (1974). Increasing spontaneous play by suppressing self-stimulation in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 521-528.
  • Koegel, R. L., Schreibman, L., Britten, K. R., Burke, J. C., & O'Neill, R. E. (1982). A comparison of parent training to direct child treatment. In R. L. Koegel, A. Rincover, & A. L. Egel (Eds.), Educating and understanding autistic children. San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.
  • Koegel, R. L., Schreibman, L., Johnson, J., O'Neill, R. E., & Dunlap, G. (1984). Collateral effects of parent training on families with autistic children. In R. F. Dangel & R. A. Polster (Eds.), Parent training: Foundations of research and practice. New York: Guilford.
  • Koegel, R.L, & Rincover, A., (1976). Some detrimental effects of using extra stimuli to guide learning in normal and autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 59-71.
  • Koegel, R.L, & Rincover, A., (1977). Research on the difference between generalization and maintenance in extra-therapy responding. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 1-12.
  • Koegel, R.L, Dunlap, G., & Dyer, K. (1980). Intertrial interval duration and learning in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 91-99.
  • Koegel, R.L, Dunlap, Richman, G.S., & Dyer, K. (1981). The use of specific orienting cures for teaching discrimination tasks. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 1, 187-198.
  • Koegel, R.L, Russo, D.C., & Rincover, A., (1977). Assessing and training teachers in the generalized use of behavior modification with autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 197-205.
  • Koegel, R.L., & Egel, A.L. (1979). Motivating autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 418-425.
  • Koegel, R.L., & Frea, W.D. (1993). Treatment of social behavior in autism through the modification of pivotal social skills. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 369-378.
  • Koegel, R.L., & Wilhelm, H. (1973). Selective responding to the components of multiple visual cues by autistic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 15, 442-453.
  • Koegel, R.L., Dyer, K, & Bell, L.K. (1986). The influence of child-preferred activities on autistic children's social behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 20, 243-252.
  • Krantz, P.J., & McClannahan, L.E. (1993). Teaching children with autism to initiate to peers: Effects of a script-fading procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 121-132.
  • Krantz, P.J., Zalenski, S., Hall, L.J., Fenske, E.C., & McClannahan, L.E. (1981). Teaching complex language to autistic children. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities. 1, 259-297.
  • Larsson, E.V., Luce, S.C., Anderson, S.R., & Christian, W.P., (1992). Autism, In M.D. Levine, W.B. Carey, & A.C. Crocker (Eds): Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
  • Lovaas, O.I., & Schreibman, L. (1971). Stimulus overselectivity of autistic children in a two-stimulus situation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 9, 305-310.
  • Lovaas, O.I., Litrownik, A., & Mann, R. (1971). Response latencies to auditory stimuli in autistic children engaged in self-stimulatory behavior. Behavior Research and Therapy, 9, 39-49.
  • Lovaas, O.I., Schreibman, L., Koegel, R.L., & Rehm, R. (1971). Selective responding by autistic children to multiple sensory input. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 211-222.
  • Luce, S. C., Christian, W. P., Anderson, S. R., Troy, P. J., & Larsson, E. V., (1991). Development of a continuum of services for children and adults with autism and other severe behavior disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 13, 9-25.
  • McClannahan, L.E., Krantz, P.J., & McGhee, G.G. (1982). Parents as therapists for autistic children: A model for effective parent training. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities. 2, 223-252.
  • McGee, G.G., Krantz, P.J., & McClannahan, L.E. (1985). The facilitative effects of incidental teaching on preposition use by autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 18, 17-32.
  • McGee, G.G., Krantz, P.J., Mason, D., & McClannahan, L.E. (1983). A modified incidental-teaching procedure for autistic youth: Acquisition and generalization of receptive object labels. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 16, 329-338.
  • Metz, J.R. (1965). Conditioning generalized imitation in autistic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2, 389-399.
  • Nordquist, V.M., & Wahler, R.G. (1973). Naturalistic treatment of an autistic child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 79-87.
  • Pierce, K., & Schreibman, L., (1995). Increasing complex social behaviors in children with autism: Effects of peer-implemented pivotal response training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28. 285-296.
  • Rincover A., & Koegel, R.L. (1975). Setting generality and stimulus control in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 235-246.
  • Rincover, A., & Koegel, R.L. (1974). Classroom treatment of autistic children II: Individualized instruction in a group. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 5, 113-126.
  • Risley, T.R., & Wolf, M.M. (1966). Experimental manipulation of autistic behaviors and generalization into the home. In R. Ulrich, T. Stachnik, & J. Mabry, (Eds.) Control of Human Behavior. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
  • Russo, D.C., & Koegel, R.L, (1977). A method for integrating an autistic child into a normal public school classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 579-590.
  • Russo, D.C., Koegel, R.L., & Lovaas, O.I. (1978). A comparison of human vs. automated instruction of autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 189-201.
  • Sailor, W., & Taman, T. (1972). Stimulus factors in the training of prepositional usage in three autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 5, 183-190.
  • Sasso, G.M., Simpson, R.L., & Novak, C.G. (1985). Procedures for facilitating integration of autistic children in public school settings. Analysis and Intervention with Developmental Disabilities, 5, 233-246.
  • Schell, R.E., Stark, J., & Giddan, J. (1967). Development of language behavior in an autistic child. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 32, 51-64.
  • Schreibman L, & Lovaas, O.I., (1973). Overselective response to social stimuli by autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1, 152-168.
  • Schreibman, L. (1975). Effects of within-stimulus and extra-stimulus prompting on discrimination learning in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 91-112.
  • Schreibman, L., O'Neill, R.E., & Koegel, R.L. (1983). Behavioral training for siblings of autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 129-138.
  • Stark, J., Giddan, J.J., & Meisel, J. (1968). Increasing verbal behavior in an autistic child. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 3, 42-48.
  • Stevens-Long, J, & Rasmussen, M. (1974). The acquisition of simple and compound sentence structure in an autistic child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 7, 473-479.
  • Sulzbacher, S.I., & Costello, J.M. (1970). A behavior strategy for language training of a child with autistic behaviors. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 35, 256-276.
  • Williams, J.A., Koegel, R.L., & Egel, A.L. (1981). Response-reinforcer relationships and improved learning in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 14, 53-60.
  • Wolf, M.M, Risley, T.R., Johnston, M., Harris, F., & Allen, E. (1967). Application of operant conditioning procedures to the behavior problems of an autistic child: A follow-up and extension. Behavior Research and Therapy. 5, 103-111.
  • Wolf, M.M., Risley, T.R., & Mees, H. (1964). Application of operant conditioning procedures to the behaviour problems of an autistic child. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1, 305-312.
  • Young, J.M., Krantz, P.J., McClannahan, L.E., & Poulson, C.L. (1994). Generalized imitation and response-class formation in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 685-697.

The names of all children in this newsletter have been changed in respect for family confidentiality.

On the Lighter Side...
...5 outrageous reinforcers sure to add fun in therapy

Hand Grenade! Deliver reinforcers like a hand grenade. Instead of giving an M&M, pretend to send it through the air with a whistling sound until it gets to child's mouth then explodes (i.e. you make an exploding sound). Run from the child and toss the (soft) reinforcer back to them.

Reinforcer Presents! Wrap the reinforcer like a real present. Sustain the anticipation by gradually unwrapping across many trials.

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ABA and the Older Child
by Kristina Chew, Ph.D.

When I first heard about ABA and what a home therapy program entailed, my thought was I certainly don't want to be doing this when Charlie is five years old. That was the summer of 1999 and Charlie, who had just turned two years old, had just been diagnosed with autism.

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